CHR Comment: The study is based on self-reporting from c. 74,000 women. It does not describe a direct cause/effect relationship between church attendance and longer life, just that the two factors correlate substantially. What the study likely shows is that people who have the good habit of regularly attending church likely also have good habits related to their health such as avoiding risky behaviors (e.g., excessive smoking and drinking). The author of the study excludes immeasurable factors such as God blessing those who attend church with longer life.
On a different note, biblical wisdom does teach that those who obey their parents may be blessed with longer life in the Promised Land (Exodus 20:12; Ephesians 6:3)